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Overview and Investigation Parameters of Urological Diseases

Overview and Investigation Parameters of Urological Diseases

A lot of people go to see their doctor for some or the other kind of urological problem.


The urologic disease can be congenital (present by birth) or due to some acquired dysfunction of the urinary tract. Certain diseases of other body systems such as diabetes may also affect the urogenital functions.


Kidney diseases include renal failure, which is the functional impairment of the kidney. It may be acute or chronic. It is further categorized into pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal. Pre-renal means impaired blood supply into the kidney and may occur in conditions such as renal artery stenosis. Intrinsic renal include drug toxicity and nephritis. Post renal includes those which cause obstruction in outlet such as kidney stone, prostate problems. Cancer of kidney (renal cell carcinoma) or metastasis from a primary site is also seen.


Other urinary tract disorders apart from kidney include hemorrhage due to trauma or structural changes, inflammation, or blockage. Urinary tract infections and cystitis (inflammation of urinary bladder) may be caused due to bacteria, fungi or protozoa.


Involuntary loss of urine (incontinence), benign prostatic hyperplasia (overgrown prostate), inflammation of prostate (prostatitis) may occur. Urinary retention may occur due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), nerve dysfunction, constipation, and due to some kind of medicinal side effects.


Cancer can occur due to uncontrolled growth of cells including transitional cell carcinoma (urinary bladder) and prostate cancer. Urinary tract obstruction may also occur.


Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. This may result due to tumour or from a simple infection. Erectile dysfunction, the inability of a male to achieve erection is also a commonly seen disorder affecting millions of men worldwide.


Vesicoureteral reflux occurs when urine stored in the bladder flows back into the ureters and then to the kidneys.


Another commonly seen problem in females is cystocele which is a hernia-like condition in which the bladder drops or sags into the vagina. This occurs when the wall between vagina and bladder weakens. This causes discomfort along with urine leakage and incomplete emptying of the bladder.


Investigation Parameters for Urologic Diseases


The investigation parameters for urological disease depend on case to case. Biochemical blood tests comprising serum urea and creatinine are typical markers of the renal function. Urinalysis involving microscopy & culture sensitivity studies urine for abnormal substances such as infection or protein.




Urodynamics evaluate the urine storage in the urinary bladder and outflow of urine through urethra. Urodynamics is essentially performed in cases of incontinence or neurological problems affecting the urinary system. X-ray KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder) is done to identify kidney stones. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) identifies the abnormalities in the shape of the urinary system, or any obstruction. Ultrasonography is performed to diagnose the problems anywhere in the urinary tract. CT scan and MRI are advised to locate the pathologies.




Cystogram is another investigative procedure usually performed in young children so as to look for disorders involving backflow of urine. Cystoscopy is an examination in which a scope is inserted through the urethra to examine bladder and the urinary tract for any obstruction or anomalies such as stones or tumors.




Likewise investigations, the treatment also varies case to case. The urologist diagnoses treat and monitor cases. The treatment ranges from conservative including medications to surgeries, invasive and non-invasive.


Dr. Bhim Sen Bansal - The Father of Lithotripsy in India


‘The Father of Lithotripsy in India’, Dr. Bhim Sen Bansal started RG Stone Urological Research Institute’ at Khar, Mumbai in 1986. The centre started as a concept, responding to public needs & fulfilling demands of common urological problems. With steady growth and expansion, it has reached the status of a movement with 16 centres across the country today.


Largest Chain Hospital


RG Stone Urology & Laparoscopy Hospital is the largest chain of super-specialty urology hospitals in India. The complete urological service is provided at RG, reflecting its ability to manage the full range of urological conditions, procedures and potential complications.


RG Stone has undertaken more than 3,50,000 successful procedures for patients from India and abroad including Lithotripsy for kidney stones; Laparoscopy for gall stones, hernia, appendicitis, gynaecological disorders, urological malignancies, etc; Endoscopy for stones etc; minimally invasive surgery for piles, and Laser Surgery for enlarged prostate and urinary stones.


Guinness Book of World Records


RG Stone Hospital has its place in the prestigious Guinness Book of World Records for treating the largest stone in kidney (13 cm). RG was the first in setting up lithotripsy machine in India and also the first to introduce 100 watt Holmium Laser machine in the country. Besides these achievements, it has been credited for performing laparoscopy-assisted PCNL for a pelvic kidney staghorn, treating youngest patient with stone (6 months), treating the oldest patient with stone (107 years), and treating a patient having permanent cardiac pacemaker with stone by lithotripsy. RG has also treated 424 grams of enlarged prostate through laser for the first time in the world.

Today, RG Stone is the world leader in the field of Laser, Lithotripsy & Laparoscopy!

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