Urinary Bladder Cancer
Urinary Bladder is a hollow bag located in the pelvis, that collects and stores the urine from kidneys. When the normal body cells multiply, they form an abnormal area of cells, called tumour.
Bladder cancer is classified by how deeply they invade the bladder wall. Superficial bladder cancer is limited to innermost lining of the bladder. Invasive bladder cancer is the one which has penetrated the muscular layer of the bladder wall.
Along with classification, the grade of the tumour is based on the degree of abnormality of the tumour. Low grade tumors are less aggressive whereas high grade tumours are dangerous.
Urinary Bladder Cancer Staging:
- Stage CIS: Flat cancer limited to the innermost lining of the bladder. It is high grade.
- Stage T1: Cancer penetrated into the submucosal tissue.
- Stage T2: Cancer penetrated the muscular bladder wall.
- Stage T3: Cancer penetrated through muscular bladder wall into the surrounding fat.
- Stage T4: Cancer penetrated into the adjacent structures (prostate, uterus, or vagina). Regional lymph nodes not involved yet.
- Stage T1-4N1-2M1-2: Cancer spread out of abdomen/pelvic wall to lymph nodes or distant organs like liver, lungs, or bones.
Urinary Bladder Cancer Signs & Symptoms
- Blood in urine
- Pain and/or burning during urination (dysuria)
- Frequency, urgency
These symptoms are non-specific and may be linked with other conditions that are unrelated to cancer. Urinary bladder cancer often causes no symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. If you experience, any of these symptoms, you must see the doctor immediately.
Investigations of Urinary Bladder Cancer
- physical examination
- urine cytology
- ct scan
Urinary Bladder Cancer Treatment
- Treatment depends upon the cancer type and stage.
- Most widely used therapies are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, alone or in combination.
- Immunotherapy or biological therapy is used in some patients at stage CIS and T1.
- Removal of Uterus
- Uterine Fibroids
- Ovarian Cysts
- Ectopic Pregnancy
- Laparoscopy Infertility
- Laparoscopic Sterilization
- Hysteroscopic Myomectomy/Polypectomy
- Hysteroscopic Endometrial Biopsy
- Hysteroscopic Tubal Cannulation
- Hysteroscopic Septal Resection
- Transcervical Resection of the Endometrium
- Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS)
- Uterine Prolapse