Urinary Bladder Cancer Staging:
- Stage CIS: Flat cancer limited to the innermost lining of the bladder. It is high grade.
- Stage T1: Cancer penetrated into the submucosal tissue.
- Stage T2: Cancer penetrated the muscular bladder wall.
- Stage T3: Cancer penetrated through muscular bladder wall into the surrounding fat.
- Stage T4: Cancer penetrated into the adjacent structures (prostate, uterus, or vagina). Regional lymph nodes not involved yet.
- Stage T1-4N1-2M1-2: Cancer spread out of abdomen/pelvic wall to lymph nodes or distant organs like liver, lungs, or bones.
Urinary Bladder Cancer Signs & Symptoms
- Blood in urine
- Pain and/or burning during urination (dysuria)
- Frequency, urgency
These symptoms are non-specific and may be linked with other conditions that are unrelated to cancer. Urinary bladder cancer often causes no symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. If you experience, any of these symptoms, you must see the doctor immediately.
Investigations of Urinary Bladder Cancer
- physical examination
- urine cytology
- ct scan
Urinary Bladder Cancer Treatment
- Treatment depends upon the cancer type and stage.
- Most widely used therapies are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, alone or in combination.
- Immunotherapy or biological therapy is used in some patients at stage CIS and T1.