- Pelvic infection
- Tubal endometriosis
- Previous abdominal surgeries
- Intra uterine contraceptives
- One-sided, intense, persistent pain in lower abdomen.
- Collapse, preceded by dizziness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or pain.
- Vaginal bleeding.
- Shoulder-tip pain: This may occur in case of internal bleeding which irritates other internal body organs such as diaphragm.
- Pain in lower back.
- Pain while passing urine or stool.
Treatment options include laparoscopy & laparotomy. Laparotomy is an open procedure whereby a transverse incision is made across the lower abdomen. Laparoscopy is preferred over laparotomy because of tiny incisions and speedy recovery. We prefer treating such patients with laparoscopy as recovery is faster.